The Basics of Chess Principles 101

Basic Chess Principles 101

At present there are now 107 basic Chess Principles. So if you read only 7 principles every day, you will have read all 107 in only 15 days, and then you will have a significand advantage over your opponents, because I am sure that they do not know even a fraction of all of these principles.

1. Rapidly develop ALL of your pieces. The main goal in the opening is to quickly develop all of your pieces and reach castling as quickly as possible. Time is critical in the opening for your RAPID development of all of your pieces. Opening is complete when one or both players have their rooks connected. The player who finishes their development first and connects their rooks gains the initiative and has a good chance to win the game

2. Develop Knights before Bishops. While Bishops can control squares from their original position, if there are no pawns obstructing their way, knights dominate only their neighbor squares and take longer to reach the opponent's field, because they are less mobile.

3. Don't move the same piece twice during the opening. Try to place your pieces at the best possible position at the first move. It is a waste of time to move the same piece more than once during opening play and it may cost you the initiative in the game. If you move a piece to a position where it can easily be attacked and be forced back you have lost the initiative.

4. Don't make unnecessary pawn moves during the opening. Pawn moves should be restricted during the opening, because the time involved in these moves could be applied to develop another piece and help your rapid development advancement. Generally, moving pawns is suitable when the player aims to open diagonals for the Queen or Bishops or occupy the center. You should know that it's pawn moves that are mostly responsible for creating a imbalance in your position that your opponent can take advantage of.

5. Don't check if not necessary. A check that can easily be defended by the opponent is unnecessary and loses time and the initiative. Most of the checks during the opening can be easily be defended by moves that favor development.

6. Don't open a position if you are late in development. An open position favors the color with more pieces in the game. Therefore, only the player who has an advantage in development should produce an open position.

7. Place the Queen behind the line of friendly pawns during the opening. Since the Queen is a very powerful piece, it is also very vulnerable to your opponent's constant attacks. Therefore, it's convenient to place it behind a pawn, preferably on the second rank so that the first one is free for rook development.

8. Avoid trading a developed piece for a not developed one. Generally, it's a bad deal to trade a well-positioned piece for a bad-positioned one. When you trade one of your developed pieces for one of your opponent's not developed ones, you waste time. The same is true if you trade a piece that has moved a lot for one that your opponent moved only once.

9. Castle as quickly as possible. The king's safety is one of the most important things to care about during opening play. The king in the center will always be very vulnerable to an opponent's attacks, especially in open positions. Castling means placing your king comfortably behind a pawn blockade and allowing development of one of your rooks.
Then, the rook may rapidly occupy an open or half-open file.

10. Kingside castling is safer than Queenside castling. Kingside castling places the king away from the center and safer behind a rank of protected pawns; furthermore it's a quicker move than Queenside castling since only 2 pieces have to be moved.
On the other hand, castling on the opponent's opposite side may be very interesting to create more attacking opportunities. More advanced players who love to play the Sicilian defense often love to castle on the Queen side for just such opportunities.

11. Try to prevent your opponent from castling. If your opponent is waiting too long to castle, try to keep their king even longer in the center. One of the most common ways to do so is to control one of the squares serving as a passage way for the king. (Usually f1 or f8, when kingside.
And many times it's even worthwhile to sacrifice a pawn or maybe even risk sacrificing a valuable piece in order to keep the king in the center, especially if you have developed an attacking army to follow through. But then be prepared for a bloody battle to ensure.

12. Dominate as much territory as possible. The player, who has an advantage in space, enables greater mobility to friendly pieces and can, therefore, transfer pieces from one side to the other with more flexibility. On the other hand, (No, not that hand, the other hand) the player in a more restricted position finds it difficult to maneuver pieces, which might be fatal if they are requested to defend the king.

13. Advance pawns in order to conquer space. Although pawns are the main resource to restrict the opponent's position, this rule should be considered carefully because the farer the pawns are from the base position the harder it is to defend them. Furthermore, each position advanced by a pawn creates weakness at it's adjacent squares, which may be occupied by enemy pieces.

14. As pawns advance they get more difficult to protect. A weak pawn is one that is not defended by another pawn, which means, that it must be defended by a valuable pieces instead, while it is under attack. If you try to defend a pawn with another pawn you may then create holes and weak squares for your opponent to occupy. If defended by a piece now those defending pieces are going to lose much of their effectiveness in the game because they now have to assume a defensive role in protecting a pawn instead of an attacking role, while enemy pieces now have the opportunity to get an active role against you.

15. Place your pawn in the center. The center of the chessboard consists of, e4, e5, d4 and d5. The expanded center also includes the squares that form the c3, c6, f3 and f6 rectangle. Pawns are the best units to create a strong center because, differently from pieces, they are not vulnerable to the attacks of enemy pawns.

16. Keep your pieces as close as possible to the center. In the center, a piece controls more squares than anywhere else on the board. The knight, for instance, may move to 8 different squares from the center while it has only 2 squares when placed in corners.
The control of the center is also important because it enables pieces to move rapidly from one side of the board to the other, and if your pieces move faster than the ones of your opponent, you have greater chances to create a successful attack.

17. When trading pawns, try to get yours as close as possible to the center. If two pawns can retake the opponent's piece that previously captured one of your pieces, it is recommended to capture with the pawn that, will be closest to the center, since central pawns are more important than lateral ones are.

18. Control the center before attacking. Successful attacks on the wings depend mostly on center control. Therefore, concern yourself with a strong and stable center before starting any lateral attack.

19. Pawns are the foundation of strategy. The pawn structure is fundamental to any position, because it improves or reduces the effectiveness of pieces. In order to achieve good pawn conformation, all different kinds of weak pawns should be avoided such as: Isolated, Doubled, Backward and Hanging pawns and pawn islands.

20. Pawn weakness is eternal. While pieces can move to become more active, any deficiency in pawn structure is a long-term weakness. Therefore, if your opponent has weak pawns, you don't need to hurry to explore them.

21. Avoid doubled pawns. Doubled pawns are two pawns of the same color lined up on the same file. (A file is a column of eight squares that can move pawns upwards. An open file is a file that is not blocked by either side's pawns. A Rank is any horizontal row.) Doubled pawns have less mobility than normal ones and are more vulnerable to attacks, especially when isolated. However, they do not always represent a disadvantage. Dominance of a open or a half-open adjacent file, or even additional control of the center, may often be sufficient compensation.

22. Avoid isolated pawns. Isolated pawns are those with no friendly pawn on either adjacent file. Therefore, they cannot be defended by a pawn of the same color, when they are under attack and have to be protected by a piece.
The main weakness of an isolated pawn is that the square directly in front of it is debilitated (A hole), because it cannot be controlled by another pawn and is easily occupied by an enemy piece.
Isolated pawns are even more vulnerable when placed in half-open files, because they then become easy targets for Rooks (FYI, Pig or Hog, is slang for Rook. Pigs on the seventh is a common term for Rooks doubled on the seventh rank and are called pigs because two rooks on the 7th rank can easily gobble up every thing in sight.

23. Avoid backward pawns. A Backward Pawn is a pawn that has pawns of its own color on adjacent files, only in front of it, so it has no pawn protection of its own. A backward pawn is closer to its base considering its adjacent comrades and is prevented from advancing, because the square directly in front of it is under an enemy pawn's control.
A backward pawn usually impairs communication between defensive pieces and the weak square (Hole) in front of it may easily be occupied by an enemy piece.

24. Avoid creating holes or (Weak Squares) Every time you advance a pawn, the square beside the pawn becomes a nice fat hole for your enemy to occupy. So that now is its main disadvantage in that it is easily occupied by enemy pieces, improving their effectiveness, because they are not easily chassed away from their positions, since they are free from opponent pawn attacks.
You should know that it is pawn advances that are the most responsible for creating imbalances in either your positions or of your opponents. So if you want to create a advantage for your self then try to entice your opponent to make some unnecessary pawn moves to create a hole and a weak square for you to take advantage of by ideally placing a knight in that hole or even a Bishop works too. Remember a weak square is one that if you were to place a knight in it there are no adjacent pawns to attack it and force it out.
A hole that is easily occupied by enemy pieces becomes a liability because it creates a imbalance in the position for whoever has one. And a wonderful opportunity for you if your opponent creates one. That hole with a knight on your enemies 7th rank for example becomes very valuable, so valuable in fact that now that knight may even become more valuable than a rook.
This is the basis of compensation in that a strong player may be able to take a rook with a knight in a hole on the 7th rank but knows that the knight now may be worth far more than the rook because of it's valued position.
Especially if it can reach out into 8 squares with its tentacles. And It may be such a terrible thorn in the side of your opponent he may consider sacrificing two pieces or a rook to get rid of it if he is even able to do that. So its a good idea to further protect it with prophylactic measures with a pawn or another piece as soon as you can.

25. Avoid pawn islands. A pawn group separated from others by one or more files is called an island. Each island contains a basic position that has to be protected by other pieces. Therefore, the more islands a player has the harder it gets to defend them.. It is useful to consider influences on the pawn structure every time you trade pieces.
At the endgame for example, if you have a smaller number of islands than your opponent has, that may be considered a real significant advantage for you.

26. Think carefully before advancing hanging pawns. Hanging pawns are two friendly pawns that have no comrades on adjacent squares. If they are placed in the same rank, they can control many squares in front of them, which is an advantage. But, on the other hand, they cannot be defended by other pawns.
Advancing one of them results in creating a backward pawn and a hole, both to be explored by your opponent.

27. Put pressure on your opponent's backward pawn. Usually, the best way to explore a backward pawn is to put pressure on it, so that the enemy uses resources in its defenses, and afterwards, attack at another point of the board,

28. Force your opponent to advance hanging pawns. In order to fight pawns, you have to put them under pressure until a pawn advances, which results in a hole that then you can occupy to your advantage.

29. Whenever possible, create a passed pawn. a passed pawn is the one that doesn't have enemy pawns in its way in its file or in adjacent files. A passed pawn is considered a very dangerous weapon, because it may reach the final rank and be promoted usually to a valued Queen. SaintEmilion was once famous for saying many times that a passed pawn is worth more than all of the Knights in Columbus and all of Gay Bishops in Rome. And GBate muzzled him for it too :)

30. Always blockade your opponent's passed pawns. A passed pawn can easily become a very powerful weapon, especially when it is well protected from enemy pieces; therefore it has to be immobilized as fast as is possible and maybe even faster than that if it is approaching to Queen. br> To block a passed pawn is to prevent it from advancing by placing a piece directly in its way. Bishops and especially Knights are considered the best pieces to use for a blockade.

31. The Knight is the best piece to block a passed pawn. Thanks to its ability to jump over all units, the knight is considered the best piece to block a passed pawn, because it's range isn't impaired by the pawn itself. The Bishop is the second best piece blockader, especially if the pawn's adjacent diagonals are open.

32. A pawn majority distant from the enemy king is an advantage. A pawn majority is when a player possesses more pawns on one side than his opponent has. For example, 2 against 1, or 3 against 2, etc. In many cases, a majority results in a spatial advantage, but most important is that this majority always produces a passed pawn, when pawns are correctly advanced.

33. The Minority Attack. Whenever a color has a majority of pawns on one side, the other color may perform a minority attack. This attack consists of advancing pawns in order to force trades, leaving your opponent with only one isolated pawn or a backward one.

34. Avoid unnecessary trades. As a general rule, you should only trade pieces: 1. When your opponent has the initiative. 2. When you are in a restricted position. 3. In order to weaken your opponent's pawn structure. 6. When you are ahead in a material advantage. 5. In order to trade off a passive piece for a active one of your opponent. 7. In order to simplify your position and reach a more favorable endgame. 8. In order to eliminate an important enemy defense. 9. Never, ever trade pieces when behind in material.

35. The value of a piece varies according to its position. The value of a piece is, generally, consistent with the number of squares it dominates, because the more squares it controls, the more it threatens your opponent.
A well positioned piece is of much higher value than the equivalent enemy piece that occupies a bad position. in general, a well positioned piece has the following qualities; it is protected, has great mobility, isn't easily attacked, cooperates with the other pieces and attacks enemy pieces or pawns.

36. Whenever possible place your Rooks on the 7th or 8th rank. A rook on the 7th rank is an advantage, not only because it represents danger to enemy pawns, but also because it restricts the opponent's king and creates various mate possibilities.

37. Doubled Rooks on the 7th rank. Two Rooks occupying the 7th rank is an extremely dangerous weapon, because the enemy is condemned to the most complete passivity.
The enormous amount of pressure on the pawn base and the possibility of innumerous tactic themes, almost turn this advantage into a win.

38. Not always a pawn should be promoted into a Queen. In amateur games, automatically queening a pawn has been the reason for many stalemate draws. Carefully consider which piece is most appropriate for that specific circumstance.

39. Keep your Knights close to the center. Knights, more than any other piece, need to be close to the center of the board.
First, because a knight can control 8 squares from the center, while from the borders only it only controls 4.
Second, because a knight needs 4 moves to cross the board and reach the other side, while from the center it takes only 2 to get to one of the borders.

40. Rooks should rapidly occupy open or held-open files. During the opening, Rooks are the last pieces to be developed, because they are effective when they settle on open or half-open files.
Usually, the ideal square to place Rooks are e1, d1 and c1, (e8, d8 and c8 for Black), because from these positions they can put pressure on the center and defend the backrank at the same time.
A Rook may, however, be an effective defense when placed on the 2nd file, while it still operates aggressively in the file.

41. Keep your Bishops active. The activity of a Bishop depends mostly on your friendly pawn's placement. A Bishop that is not blocked by its own pawns is a good Bishop and one that is limited by its pawns is said to be a bad Bishop. If you have a bad Bishop it may be a good idea to simply trade it off to improve the effectiveness of your pieces.

42. Keep your pawns on squares of the same color of your opponent's Bishop. When your opponent has only one Bishop, you should place your pawns on squares of the color of corresponding color of the squares occupied by that enemy Bishop.
However, if you have only one Bishop, then the color of your pawn's squares should not correspond to your Bishops placement, whether your opponent has only one Bishop or not.

43. A Bishop is worth more than a Knight on open positions. Bishops must have diagonals to operate in order to be more effective, therefore the less there are pawns on the chessboard, the more effective they get. In open positions, when diagonals aren't obstructed by pawns, a Bishop can attack the kingside and protect its own flank from the Queen, at the same time. On the other hand, a knight can maneuver only on one side due to its restricted mobility.

44. A knight is worth more than a Bishop n closed positions. Due to their ability to jump over other units, knight perform better than Bishops in rigid pawn chain positions.

45. Knights need outposts.

An outpost is a square, usually in the 5th and 6th ranks, that is under the protection of a pawn and isn't subject to enemy pawn attacks. When a knight occupies an outpost, it puts a great deal of pressure on the opponent's camp and it also supports the development of flank attacks.

46. Usually, in mobile pawn endgame, the Bishop is worth more than a knight.

In the Bishop's fight against the knight, the Bishop's color should try to keep its pawns mobile, while the other camp should paralyze these enemy pawns, preferably on squares of the same color as the square occupied by the bishop.

47. Two Bishops are, usually stronger than Bishop and Knight and than two Knights.

The Bishop is a long-range piece and its main disadvantage is the ability to control only squares of the same color.

Therefore, two Bishops complement each other perfectly. When well coordinated, they are superior to a Bishop and a Knight , because these enemies take too long to reach the active field due to the limited mobility of the Knight.

Another advantage of a pair of Bishops is that, at any moment, you may trade one of them for the enemy knight, while it is very difficult for the opponent to trade the Knight for one of the enemy Bishops.

48. how to fight against a Bishop and a Knight.

If you own a pair of Bishops and your opponent a Bishop and a Knight, restrict the enemy Bishop's range by placing pawns on squares of the same color as the Bishop's square, and reduce the power of the enemy Knight by preventing it from occupying outposts and central squares.

49. How to fight a pair of Bishops.

If your opponent owns a pair of Bishops, restrict their activity with blocking pawn chains and conquer outposts for your knights.

50. Keep your pawns on squares that are different from ones of your Bishop.

If you own only one Bishop, try to place your pawns on squares of the opposite color of the Bishop's

Beside keeping the diagonal clear for the Bishop's operation, this enables your pawns to work in perfect harmony with the piece, controlling one color of squares, while the Bishop controls the other.

51. Bishops should be placed in front of a pawn chain.

A Bishop will be very weakened if it is restricted by pawns, therefore always try to place it out of the pawn chain, when they are on squares of the same color as the Bishop is.

52. If your opponent owns two Bishop, try to trade one of them off.

When you are fighting a pair of Bishops, try to trade one of them off, because this will withdraw the dominance your opponent had over the squares the Bishop used to control.

53. Keep your eyes on the squares controlled by your opponent's Bishop.

If you opponent owns two Bishops and you only one (the white-squared Bishop, for instance), the enemy has control over the color of the spare Bishop's squares (the black squares, in this example).

That means, that you have to watch carefully over these squares, because the other Bishop (of the Black squares} can attack pawns and squares your Bishop cannot defend.

54. A Bishop can dominate a Knight.

Due to its wider range, the Bishop can totally control a knight that is placed at a border of the chessboard.

In endgames, this may be fatal, because the color that owns a Bishop is, in effect, playing with an extra piece.

55. Think about defense first.

The most important principle in chess is safety. At each move your opponent makes, stop and ask yourself the following questions:

1. Where is the move that is threatening me?
2. What are my opponent's intentions?
3. What would I do in my opponent's place?
4. What Knight moves can my opponent make?

56. Assess the changes resulting from your opponent's move.

Each move may considerably change the situation on the chessboard. Therefore, it's recommended to ask yourself the following questions after each of your opponent's moves:

1. What does the new move attack and defend?

2. Where has defense and attack been withdrawn?

3. Which diagonals, ranks and files have been obstructed?

4. Which diagonals, ranks and files have been liberated?

5. Which enemy piece can occupy the square left by the piece that just made the move?

6. Where can the piece move to now?

57. Keep the backrank protected.

Make sure your king is able to escape any backrank checks, before moving your Rooks from the 6 th rank.

It's always wise to open a small escape path for the King, before withdrawing Rooks from the 8 th rank.

58. Don't let your pieces get overloaded.

An overloaded pieces is a piece performing more than one function at the same time. Usually it's the one that is busy defending two or more pieces.

Overloaded pieces are reason for tactic strikes leading to loss of material, because they leave something unprotected when they are forced to move.

59. Don't recapture pieces automatically.

It's recommended to consider the possibility of intermediate moves before retaking any piece.

Intermediate moves are powerful weapons because they surprise the opponent, besides being an important tactic component.

60. Avoid advancing pawns that protect your King.

Every pawn move creates a weakness that may seem irrelevant at first, but that can be explored later on by your opponent.

61. Never ever allow your King to stay in danger of a check, not ever, or surly you will suffer the consequences.

Unexpected checks are, many times, the key to dangerous tactic strikes, and frequently when least expected.

62. Avoid placing heavy pieces in the range of lower pieces.

A piece of greater value should never be placed in the way of a less aggressive one, because the latter will be nullified and terminated.

63. If you've got little space to trade off one or two pieces.

Try to trade one or two pieces in order to liberate some space, when you are in a restricted position.

The other way around, when you have a space advantage, avoid trading and use this advantage to quickly shift the attack from one side to the other.

64. Eliminate the negative and accent the positive by eliminating your opponent's best piece.

If one of your opponent's pieces is very well positioned, try to trade it off.

65. Keep your most valuable pieces well protected.

Every unprotected piece may be a target of an enemy combination.

The ideal is to keep all pieces protected by pawns or, if there aren't any available , by other pieces.

The main disadvantage of defending pieces by pieces is that, once the defender itself is attacked, it must then abandon the piece it was protecting.

66. Keep your pieces on a square of a different color than the enemy Bishop is on.

If your opponent has only one Bishop, try to place all of your pieces on a square of a different color than the enemy Bishop can control.

67.Try to get rid of all pinned pieces.

A pinned piece is immobilized and always vulnerable to new attacks.

It is impossible to avoid losing material, when the opponent gets to attack this piece with a pawn.

68. Never make the job easy for your opponent.

Don't despair when you are under attack; even in a clearly inferior position there is always a chance for survival.

The main principle consists in making things difficult for your opponent's attack, placing many obstacles in the enemy's way, lingering as much as possible your defense and inducing your opponent to a mistake.

69. If your opponent attacks on one side, counter-attack in the center.

Many times, the best answer to a flank attack is a counter-attack in the center, even if it costs you a pawn.

70. Try to anticipate your opponent's threats.

Usually, a direct threat can be easily defended, but a remote threat, on the other hand, is only defended if you are able to anticipate it some moves before hand.

Otherwise, when the remote threat become imminent, it will come with another direct threat that will also need to get your immediate attention.

71. Trade off the opponent's Fianchettoed Bishop.

This means to weaken a group of squares close to the king, which may open lines for an attack.

72. Improve your pieces position.

Try, gradually, to improve your pieces position so that they can control more important squares, to cooperate with friendly pieces and put more pressure on the enemy territory.

73. Restrict the movement of enemy pieces.

Try, whenever possible, to keep enemy pieces as far as you can from the field of action. 74. Confine an enemy piece.

Keeping an enemy piece out of the game for awhile may be sufficient to gain a decisive advantage.

75. Always try to create some kind of threat for your opponent.

Your opponent is forced to allocate resources in order to contain the threat you created, which draws attention away from the enemy's own plans.

76. Create new weaknesses in the enemies field.

Never be satisfied in attacking an existing weakness on your opponent's position, but try to create new ones.

Many times, the first step to a kingside attack is to force the weakness of a pawn.

77. Concentrate your forces on your opponent's weak points.

As you put pressure on certain points, your opponent is forced to bring pieces in pieces in order to protect this point, which leaves other areas on the chessboard unprotected and subject to new attacks.

78. Cumulate advantages before attacking.

Before starting an attack, you should create weaknesses in the opponent's position and place as many pieces you can in aggressive positions.

A premature attack offers the opponent a chance to organize defenses.

79. Concentrate as much as possible your forces when you attack.

In order to ensure a successful attack, it's essential to concentrate your forces on your target, preventing your opponent from an effective defense.

If the attack fails in this case, the opponent's weaknesses are very likely to increase. 80. Open ranks, files and diagonals.

It's important to open ranks with pawn moves or piece sacrifices, because it's through these ranks that attacking pieces can enter the enemy position. 81. Eliminate key pieces of your opponent's defense.

Identify the most important piece of your opponent's defense, when you are attacking, and try to eliminate it. 82. Avoid trading while attacking.

Unless there is a very good reason, it's recommended not to trade pieces while attacking, because this may make the opponent's defense easier.

Especially Queen trades, usually, debilitate the attack.

83. Plan hypothetical trades.

Mentally withdrawing pieces from the chessboard, assessing the new position and verifying if the new situation is worse or better than previous one is a very useful technique to evaluate if an exchange is to be made or not.

84. Quickly move your attack from one side to the other.

Many times it's necessary to create at least two weaknesses in enemy positions to win a game.

Then, an alternated attack on these weak points is a very powerful weapon, especially when your opponent has a lack of space, since enemy pieces will get overloaded by defending both positions at the same time. In Endgame Theory, this is similar to the weakness of two pieces or pawns moving down the board on both sides of the board at the same time. It's almost impossible to defend both pieces at the same time.

85. Whenever you have a material advantage you must usually simplify to increase your strength.

Material advantage gets more and more intense as the number of pieces on the chessboard falls.

The difference of 1 unit in a battle of 4 against 3 is much more significant than in a battle of 10 against 9 for example.

86. After an attack, reorganize your pieces.

Usually, after an attack pieces lose their harmony. <'p> Therefore, before starting a new incursion against your opponent, reorganize your forces and protect your weak points as quickly as is possible.

87. When a player has an extra pawn it's recommended to trade pieces instead of pawns.

The principle is very simple; the fewer pieces in a game, the less complicated is the position and much easier it gets to explore material advantage.

88. Centralize you King as quick as is possible in endgames.

After most of the pieces, especially Queens, have been traded off, the king takes a predominant role in the battle and becomes an aggressive piece.

Since the King is a piece of little mobility, it's recommended to centralize it as quickly as possible so it can move fast the position on the chessboard where it may be most needed.

89. The King must be active in the endgame.

During most endgames, the King must worry less about mates and should assume a more active position, especially, pursuing and blocking enemy pawns.

90. Drag your opponent into Zugzwang.

Zugzwang is a situation in which any movement the player makes results in an even more worse situation than if he does not move at all.

This resource is particularly important in Bishop versus Knight endgames.

Since the Bishop has control on practically the same squares when it moves on a diagonal, it has a great time advantage on the Knight that loses control on squares when it moves.

91. Many wins are based on winning the opposition.

Kings are in opposition when they are placed on the same file, rank or diagonal with only one free square between them.

Winning the opposition means that a player moves the King in order to put the enemy King in Zugzwang, forcing the latter to make the next move.

92. Endgames with Bishops of opposite colors usually result in a draw.

Bishops of opposite colors may represent an advantage for active color in the middle game, since the Bishop of the defensive part won't be able to neutralize the pressure on a certain diagonal.

Nevertheless, an endgame one Bishop cannot attack the points the other can defend.

93. Flank pawns are very strong against Knights.

Usually, a Knight has a hard time to fight passed pawn, due to its little mobility.

When these pawns are Rook pawns, it gets even harder, because Knights have more restricted movements close to the borders.

94. Keep your Rooks active in endgames.

An active Rook is stronger than a passive one.

In endgames, this may, sometimes, be just enough to win your game.

95. Always place a Rook behind a passed pawn.

Rooks become more active behind passed pawns, both to support friendly pawns and to attack enemy ones.

96. The color that has an exchange down should avoid trading the second Rook.

Many times, when a player has an exchange down, the simplest way to win an endgame is to trade off the opponent's second Rook.

Usually, a lonely minor piece has little chance against a Rook.

97. Create a passed pawn if you have a majority of pawns.

In order to create a passed pawn from a majority of pawns, advance the pawn first that has no opponent in its file.

When the opponent succeeds in placing a pawn directly in front of your most advanced pawn, the advantage of your majority tends to disappear, because lateral pawns have no support points to advance to.

98. Centralize the Queen in endgames.

Although the Queen should not be too exposed during the first part of the game, after some piece trading, it should be centralized whenever possible.

On a central square the Queen should not be too exposed during the first part of the game, after some piece trading, it should be centralized whenever possible.

On a central square the Queen reaches its highest mobility (Almost half of the chessboard) and it prevents the enemy Queen from occupying the most important positions.

99. Always expect your opponent to find and make the best move.

Never make a move believing that your opponent won't find the best answer to it.

100. Not every weakness is bad.

Weaknesses are only relevant if your opponent can exploit them.

A pawn is only weak if it can be captured; a square is only weak if your opponent can occupy it.

101. Every rule was made to be broken.

Chess is not an exact science and all tips, principles and concepts presented simply cannot be applied in100% of all of the situations, and neither should they be. followed blindly.

One of the main differences between a Great Grandmaster player and a amateur is in them knowing when basic strategy principles are to be violated or not.

102. Don't weaken your King's defenses early in the game.

In general, it is recommend that you avoid advancing pawns that protect your King, unless you have a dam good reason for doing so, or surly you will suffer the consequences of your foolish actions.

103. Moving out END PAWNS in the opening loses time to your opponent's development.

Always develop with a purpose. This means that when you move a piece out for your development that piece should be developed in such a way as that if follows some basic chess purpose, or follows some basic chess principle, like a bishop pin of knight against queen. Or a knight move that attacks an important center square. Or a center pawn move that opens a file to develop a bishop.

Amateurs like to move out END PAWNS to prevent a pin but generally, this is a wasted defensive move that not only does not develop a piece in your opening play, but it also gives the initiative to your opponent because now you have given your opponent the opportunity to gain a tempo in his development and put you behind in your development.

Notice that strong players rarely move out end pawns in their opening play unless there is a very good reason for doing so. Always try to quickly castle and connect your rooks within the first 7 or at least the first 10 moves. Whoever is able to connect their rooks first is said to have a significant advantage because of completing their development first and frequently has a better chance of winning the game.

104. Never, ever underestimate the value of a passed pawn.

A passed pawn has the potential very frequently of deciding the game for you so you must defend it with as many pieces as is practical, so as to make its Queening possible.

A passed pawn is worth more than all of the Knights in Columbus Ohio, and all of the Gay Bishops in Rome, so its best to get a Rook BEHIND it, as soon as possible and protect it prophylactically with another piece.

The Knights of Columbus are members of a benevolent and fraternal society of Roman Catholic men founded in 1882.

The gay Bishops are members of a autocratic greedy bunch of Roman Catholic people who make sure that every penny that they can get their hands on gets sent to Rome to the Catholic church so that it can reach out with its powerful financial tactics to own as many businesses as is possible using its unfair tax breaks. Have you any idea of just how many billions the Catholic Church is worth now?

105. In your opening play, it is very important to first complete development before you try and simply take a pawn, otherwise the file where your King is located could be open, making your king vulnerable to attacks and losing tempo. It's necessary to balance your central position, open lines for development and guarantee a good square for your Knight. This ia playing sound basic opening principles.

106. One good way to find good winning moves are to do like strong players do and that is to use the principles of Back Solving. Just think hard on back solving for a checkmate, both for winning and for preventing one on you. Back Solving involves the process of thinking of how a checkmate could be made if this or that were to happen, starting from some good position that you are now playing.

107, One good way to tell who is the better player is to observe who is playing positionally wasting no time to rapid develop all of their pieces first and then castle for a safe King. The lesser player is more concerned with attack first and always aggressively pushing things for a fast win as he has not the patience to act prudently in securing a sound position where his pieces act in a coordinated fashion and usually his attacks just fizzle out against the positional players strong defenses.

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