Chess Wisdom Part 1 of 2

76 Rules here for your study

1. The sharpest way to attack the Sicilian Dragon is to play 7.f3 intending Queen d2 g4 h4 Bishop h6 and a big kingside attack. If white castles queenside, black must use the open c file for counter play and get a rook there as soon as possible.

2. In the Sicilian Richter Rauzer Var. Black must balance his queenside counter attack with center control. If white is allowed to play the move e5 this can disrupt blacks defenses entirely.

3. In the Sicilian Richter Rauzer Var. Black always has to consider the possibility of bishop g5 takes knight on f6, black then has a choice, either to recapture with his bishop which may then leave his d6 pawn weak but make his bishop on f6 a very powerful piece or to recapture on f6 with a g7 pawn. This creates a very solid block of pawns in the center and black has a bishop pair as well. Although his position is cramped he can often break out. White for his part must try to pry open this block of pawns with the threat f4 to f5 attacking e6.

4. In the Sicilian Dragon play is characterized by where white puts his king. If he goes queenside there is going to be a lot of attacking! If white castles queenside, black must use the open c file for counter play and get a rook there as soon as possible. Always watch out for the possibility of black playing rook takes knight on c3 ripping white's queenside pawn structure apart and weakling the e4 pawn. Black's most important piece is his bishop on g7 try to exchange it as soon as possible.

5. Try to avoid accepting backward pawns. But if you do get saddled with one try to trade it for a healthy enemy pawn or to develop counterplay that prevents your opponent from attacking your weakness. This might mean exchanging pieces so that the half-open file in front of the backward pawn becomes blocked by an enemy pawn.

6. In harassing an enemy backward pawn, first control the square in front of it with your own pawns and pieces. When suitable, try to occupy that square with a piece, particularly a knight. But if that piece is captured, be sure you can take back with another piece; otherwise you might lose the ability to attack the backward pawn.

7. A bad bishop is one that is blocked or impeded by its won pawns, which are fixed on the same color squares traveled by the bishop. A light-square bishop is bad if its pawns are stuck on light squares and a dark-square bishop is bad if its pawns are fixed on dark squares.

8. Avoid having your own pawns on the same color your bishop uses, but try to fix your opponent's pawns on the same color squares occupied by his bishop. If you have a bad bishop, try to exchange it for your opponent's good bishop, or knight. If you have a good bishop, don't exchange it unless you have a good reason.

9. If you are behind by a pawn or two, try trading minor pieces so that you reach an endgame with bishops of opposite color. This gives you some chances of drawing, especially if you can blockade the enemy passed pawns. If you have an extra pawn or two avoid exchanges that leave opposite-color bishops.

10. In the middle game if you and your opponent have different color bishops try to use yours for attack. Your opponent may not be able to neutralize its power. Also in the middle game if you have two bishops, don't exchange those bishops for knights because two bishops often work in combination with other pieces to be deadly in the endgame.

11. Try to blockade enemy passed and isolated pawns. Guard the blockade squares with pieces and pawns and occupy it with pieces. In particular, aim to maneuver knights into a blockade position. If you have an isolated pawn and your opponent is attempting to blockade it, try to advance the pawn and exchange it for a healthy enemy pawn. If you have a passed pawn and the enemy is blockading it, try to drive away the blockader so your pawn can move ahead.

12. Try to double your rooks on open and half-open files. Then move your rooks to the seventh rank, doubling them there if possible. Try to prevent your opponent from doubling rooks. You can usually do this by moving your rook to an open file on which there is an opponent's rook so that neither side controls the file exclusively.

13. There's a term,"A Knight on the rim is grim," because a Knight along the edge attacks only four squares. The Knight does its best work in the center of the board where it can attack the most squares.

14. Rooks belong on open files

15. To avoid losing a piece, many a person has lost the game. Tartakover

16. Its best to Open your play with either the King's Pawn or the Queen's Pawn.

17. Develop Knights before Bishops.

18. Do not bring out your Queen early in the game.

19. Castle as soon as possible, preferably on the King's side.

20. Play to get control of the center.

21. Whenever possible, make a good developing move which threatens something.

22. Pick the most suitable square for a piece and develop it there once and for all!

23. Always try to maintain at least one Pawn in the center of the board. Never ever sacrifice without a very clear and adequate reason. That for a Pawn there must be one of four reasons. 1.Secure a tangible advantage in development. 2.Deflect the enemy Queen. 3. Prevent the enemy from castling, either permanently or for several moves. 4.You're going to build up a very strong attack.

24. In the Alekhine's Defense Black allows White to build up a powerful, Pawn center, not because he believes such a center is bad, but because he is convinced that he will be able to crack it sooner or later.

25. It is important to be very clear about the question of the evaluation of a position reached in the opening. Such a general Analysis involves six factors: 1.Material. 2.PawnStructure. 3.Mobility. 4.KingSafety. 5.Combinations. 6.Most of the modern defenses are simply infallible when used as directed!

26. In the King's Pawn Openings with 1.e4, e5 as long as Black can retain symmetry, White can lay no claim to an advantage. Consequently the task is to compel the defender to give up his strong center positions, in other words to abandon his Pawn at e4. If White continues theoretically to play according to Hoyle's law in the King's Pawn Openings, against less regular lines, Black can and should do what his opponent has neglected to do, that is to advance his Queen Pawn on d6 to d5, and secure the favorable Pawn skeleton for himself. In fact, it may be adopted, as a good working rule that once Black succeeds in playing his Pawn to d5 without any immediate harmful consequences he has equalized and his opponent's Skeleton will not be able to ever attack him.

27. It is worth remembering that there are two questions which must be answered for each move played: 1. How does it affect the center? 2. How does it fit in with the development of my other pieces and pawns?

28. In the Sicilian Defense, Black must never allow White to play his pawn to c4 in the opening, because he then has no counterplay on the Queen Bishop file and is thereby doomed to passivity.

29. Bishop Rule 1 - Bishops are long-range pieces and love wide-open positions that are free of central pawns.

30. Bishop Rule 2 - In the endgame, Bishops are great at stopping enemy pawns, which they can do from the other side of the board.

31. Bishop Rule 3 - If you are unfortunate enough to possess a bad (and inactive) Bishop, you are usually well advised to do one of three things:

1. Trade off the offending piece off for an enemy Bishop or Knight.
2. Make it good by moving the central pawns off the color of your Bishop
3. Get your Bishop outside the pawn chain. Many games have been won by turning an important bad Bishop into a "bad" but active piece.

32. Bishop Rule 4 - If a player gets the two Bishops versus a Bishop and Knight or two Knights, he usually wants to retain then because, working together, the Bishops control squares of both colors.
If your opponent has two Bishops, trade one of them off and leave yourself with more manageable Knight versus Bishop or Bishop versus Bishop scenario.

33. Knight Rule 1 - Knights need advanced support points if they are going to compete successfully with Bishops.
A support point, (i.e., an advanced square that can't be controlled by an enemy pawn) on the sixth rank is ideal, while a Knight on the fourth is a very strong piece, but we see a case of diminishing returns if you place it on the third, second, or first ranks.
The first and second ranks in particular are not good homes for a Knight and should only be used as a path to greener pastures.

33. Knight Rule 2 - Knights tend to be superior to Bishops in closed positions. A wall of pawns will completely shut a Bishop down, but a Knight will just jump over this wall and continue on its way.

34. Knight Rule 3 - Knights are the best blockaders of passed pawns. A knight can stop an enemy passer in its tracks and still remain active due to its ability to jump over other units.

35. Knight Rule 4 - Knights are usually superior to Bishops in endings with pawns on only one side of the board. Such positions makes light of a Bishop's long-range powers, while the knight's ability to go to either color ( a Bishop is forever stuck on one color complex) becomes extremely valuable.

36. Doubled Pawns Rule 1 - A doubled pawn gives its owner an extra open file for his Rooks.

37. Doubled Pawns Rule 2 - If the pawns are central, double pawns allow for coverage of critical squares that would not be possible if the pawns were undoubled and "healthy."

38. Doubled Pawns Rule 3 - Doubled pawns can turn out to be inflexible and, in the worst case scenario, simply weak. In general, the lead pawn turns out to be the target. 39. Isolated Pawn Rule 1 - An isolated pawn might be an unstoppable passer.

40. Isolated Pawn Rule 2 - It might be centrally placed, which means that it may guard important squares.

41. Isolated Pawn Rule 3 - You might be able to use an isolated pawn as a battering ram that will slam into, and subsequently fragment, the enemy's "superior" structure.

42. Isolated Pawn Rule 4 - Even if your isolated pawn isn't going anywhere, your Rooks might become more active than the opponent's thanks to the two half, or fully, open files on either side of it.

43. Isolated Pawn Rule 5 - If your opponent ends up with an isolated pawn, make sure you control the square in front of it. Aside from stopping the pawn in its tracks, the square will turn out to be an excellent home (support point) for one of your pieces.

44. Isolated Pawn Rule 6 - An isolated pawn (i.e., a White pawn on d4 or a Black pawn on d5) gains space and makes its army's pieces active.

45. Isolated Pawn Rule 7 - The side playing against the isolated pawn should (ideally) exchange all the minor pieces (they can't get active if they're not on the board!), place a Rook in front of the pawn, immobilizing the poor thing, and put the Queen behind it, doubling on the pawn and putting a lot of pressure on it.

46. Backward Pawn Rule 1 - If the backward pawn sits on a half-open file it might be weak. If it isn't on a half-open file, the pawn probably won't become a significant weakness.

47. Backward Pawn Rule 2 - A well-defended backward pawn, even if it's sitting on a half-open file, can often shrug off many kinds of attacks.

48. Backward Pawn Rule 3 - Often of more importance than the potential weakness of a backward pawn is the weakness of the square directly in front of it. If the square is adequately guarded by pieces, then the pawn might not be a problem.

49. Backward Pawn Rule 4 - A backward pawn often serves a useful purpose by guarding a pawn that has gone ahead of it.

50. Backward Pawn Rule 5 - Often a backward pawn is backward in name only. If it can safely advance at will, then the label of "backward" should be punted out of one's mind.

51. Passed Pawn Rule 1 - If both sides have play elsewhere that has nothing to do with the passer, a passed pawn, even one that isn't playing a dynamic role, can prove useful as an endgame insurance policy.

52. Passed Pawn Rule 2 - When one side owns a passed pawn, the most important square on the board for both players, is usually the square directly in front of the passer.

53. Passed Pawn Rule 3 - If the passed pawn can be firmly blockaded, then the pawn may end up as a traitor; Its very existence may block files and diagonals and thus limit its own Bishops and Rooks, giving the opponent access to a key square (the one in front of the passer) that wouldn't be available if the pawn were not there.

54. Passed Pawn Rule 4 - If a passed pawn can't be blockaded, the pawn can run down the board and cause panic in the enemy's ranks. The defender will usually be in for a hard ride if the pawn gets safely past the fifth rank.

55. Passed Pawn Rule 5 - In general, the owner of a passed pawn would like to trade off all the minor pieces, thus getting rid of the most useful blockaders. He would also prefer to retain the Queens and a least one Rook. Keeping the Queens on the board scares the defender's King and stops it from taking on the duties of a blockader.

56. Space Rule 1 - Extra space is advantageous for one simple reason: the more space we possess, the more room our pieces have to move about in.

57. Space Rule 2 - The side with more space should avoid exchanges since this would give more room to the boxed-in enemy.

58. Space Rule 3 - The side with less territory should actively seek trades since that will transform his cramped quarters into something a bit easier to tolerate.

59. Material Rule 1 - If you have a material advantage, most endgames are in your favor. This means that trading pieces is an option that your opponent won't enjoy.

60. Material Rule 2 - If you have a material advantage and if you can make your extra unit of force an active participant in the battle, than do so!

61. Material Rule 3 - If you have a material advantage and if you can't make immediate use of your material plus, don't worry. An extra pawn will act as endgame insurance, threatening your opponent's endgame chances for the rest of the game.

62. Material Rule 4 - When you employ a plan that nets you some extra wood, immediately shore up your weak points and bring all your pieces to squares where they will work together. Don't keep lashing out if your army is off balance.

63. Material Rule 5 - If you are behind in material, you must seek out some kind of compensation to justify the deficit. Some common forms of compensation are active pieces, a lead in development possession of the initiative, and extra space.

64. Rooks Rule 1 - Your Rooks will be useless unless you can create an open file for their use.

65. Rook Rule 2 - An open file is only worth bothering with if a Rook can use it to penetrate into the enemy position. If no penetration points exist, then the file is totally and utterly useless.

66. Rook Rule 3 - Usually an open file won't be handed to you on a silver platter encrusted with precious gems. Its your responsibility to play smart and crack open a file; turn your Rook's need into a reality!

67. Rook Rule 4 - An open file will often be equally contested by opposing Rooks. This will usually lead to massive trades. Unfortunately, such things can't be avoided because stepping away from the file would hand it over to the opponent who will use it to his advantage.

68. Key Square Rule 1 - The reason one plays for control of a key square (such a square is also known as a "hole") is that it will usually prove to be an excellent home for a Knight or a Bishop, though other pieces can also gain from laying claim to it.

69. Key Square Rule 2 - Once your piece reaches a hole, it will inevitably be more valuable than its counterpart on the other side of the board.

70. Key Square Rule 3 - Often entire plans are based on the acquisition of key squares.

71. Development Rule 1 - A lead in development is a temporary advantage (structural and material plusses are considered to be long term or permanent advantages) The opponent will catch up if you don't make immediate use of it.

72. Development Rule 2 - If the center is closed, rapid development is not necessarily a priority because the enemy pieces won't be able to break into your position.

73. Development Rule 3 - If the center is open (meaning that open files and diagonals penetrate into your camp), rapid development takes on greater significance.

74. Initiative Rule 1 - You should always try to impose your will on the character of the game.

75. Initiative Rule 2 - Never mindlessly react to every threat, perceived or real, that your opponent throws your way. This will give him a firm initiative ahd will leave you passively reacting to his ideas.

76. Initiative Rule 3 - Like in development, the initiative can fade away if you don't make good use of it.

Part Two Of Chess Wisdom and Basic Chess Principles